파주출장샵┋예약금없는출장샵◄파주천안 퇴폐〔파주월곶 마사지〕♫《파주안마방 후장》⇪파주평택역 마사지✓파주금정 안마방▧ 파주중랑구 마사지➻파주안마방 전화﹃파주처음 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

파주출장샵┱24시출장샵⇙파주천안 퇴폐〔파주저주파 마사지〕囍《파주안마사》♮파주도봉구 안마방ο파주해피 출장┄파주보령 안마방╇파주목동 마사지ユ파주안마방 미시

The governments of more than 190 nations 강원도압구정 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

파주출장샵➽출장부르는법✿파주천안 퇴폐〔파주파주 마사지〕☂《파주대전 안마방 후기》⇣파주방이동 안마방♮파주카카오출장┐파주안마방 리뷰◕파주나주 안마방☺파주2콩 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

파주출장샵⇣24시출장샵⇔파주천안 퇴폐〔파주정관 마사지〕♈《파주트레이너 마사지》✄파주다리 마사지 기계☼파주홍콩 안마방↫파주전완근 마사지➦파주오류동 안마방★파주마사지 볼

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 바카라사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

파주출장샵┴예약┍파주천안 퇴폐〔파주마포구청 마사지〕➹《파주영일대 마사지》¤파주안마방 torrent➶파주계양구 안마방✃파주서산 안마방↦파주방콕 마사지 추천卐파주명동 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 영덕강남 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

파주출장샵⇩예약↥파주천안 퇴폐〔파주베트남 안마방〕”《파주안마방 국산》↘파주포항 마사지ス파주여성 전용 아로마 마사지☀파주제주 마사지♥파주광주 안마방 추천╝파주비키니 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 천안출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

파주출장샵파주군포 마사지

  • 영월출장서비스
  • 파주커플 마사지
  • 파주출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    파주출장샵♦예약금없는출장샵☎파주천안 퇴폐〔파주출장오피〕➺《파주주안 마사지》↺파주마사지 하다가┈파주역삼동 마사지☂파주안마➵파주태평역 안마방♨파주태국 마사지 종류

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 수원일본 가슴 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 수원출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    포항출장샵
    진주안마방 수위 포항출장샵 보성콜걸
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    파주출장샵☎예약금없는출장샵♛파주천안 퇴폐〔파주서해부 마사지〕☞《파주고현 안마방》─파주일본 해수욕장 마사지ヒ파주무한샷 안마방ホ파주마사지 배우는곳▀파주일본 마사지 품번⇪파주전주 타이 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 해남현풍 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    파주출장샵❀예약➹파주천안 퇴폐〔파주마사지 레전드 품번〕▨《파주경찰 안마방》×파주야 동 마사지↨파주서울역 마사지♂파주부산 서면 안마방☻파주서현역 마사지♥파주수유역 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 서울출장안마 .

    평창말레이시아 마사지
    목포종아리 근육 마사지 바카라사이트 보성안마방 가는법
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    파주출장샵●예약▶파주천안 퇴폐〔파주다방 모텔〕♫《파주태국마사지 가격》▦파주레즈 마사지➧파주마사지 발기ヘ파주거제도 여관↺파주19금 마사지┅파주다리 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. undersite.xyz .

    파주출장샵㍿예약금없는출장샵⇏파주천안 퇴폐〔파주마사지 종류〕↢《파주부천역 안마방》1파주김해 모텔 추천↤파주영통 마사지☪파주금천구 마사지☲파주부천 만남⇙파주양구 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 바카라사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 계룡타이 마사지 아로마 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    파주출장샵◐예약►파주천안 퇴폐〔파주진영 안마방〕☇《파주크라운제이 안마방》→파주광명사거리 안마방⇚파주상해 마사지☍파주오창 안마방タ파주김포 타이 마사지⇪파주마사지 ssul

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    파주출장샵▣24시출장샵❄파주천안 퇴폐〔파주동해 안마방〕┴《파주역출장안마》♥파주천안안마┞파주안마방 짜파게티ネ파주마사지 핸플↟파주용산 마사지╔파주서울 출장 후기

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 순천가산 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 수원출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 전주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 속초성내동 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    파주출장샵☂24시출장샵⇛파주천안 퇴폐〔파주대전 출장안마〕↷《파주사이판 마사지》♢파주운정 안마방⇪파주에스코트 모델◦파주출장마사지 후기☟파주천안 조건↷파주안마방 카드

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 수원출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    파주출장샵ル24시출장샵∷파주천안 퇴폐〔파주안마방 무한샷〕▫《파주안마방 가는 법》↱파주안마방 썰§파주운서동 안마방✔파주얼굴 마사지 기계メ파주콜걸◑파주건강 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    경산마사지 카드 단속
    천안출장안마 해남감성마사지란 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    파주출장샵υ출장부르는법⇌파주천안 퇴폐〔파주양재 안마방〕┥《파주새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트》┻파주서귀포 마사지◣파주구리 모텔 추천◐파주강릉 모텔 추천↩파주포항 마사지▬파주부산 하단 출장

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.파주출장샵파주부산역 모텔 가격➥파주사북 마사지☺《파주군산 터미널 모텔》파주모란 안마방▌파주대구 출장마사지★파주검단사거리 안마방↯파주가슴 마사지チ온라인카지노예약파주서귀포 마사지❈파주천안 대딸방♐〖파주괌 안마방〗파주게이 마사지⇢파주부산 수영 안마방◦파주손 마사지ミ파주씨엠립 마사지╩파주출장샵서천안마방 태국파주중국 마사지 체험기✖파주타이 마사지 후기╚﹛파주구디 안마방﹜파주토렌트 마사지✄파주간석오거리 안마방▀파주충주 마사지↪파주동래 마사지┻파주어스파⇙파주스웨디시 마사지 단점❦<파주나고야 여성전용 마사지>파주엉덩이 마사지✉파주오사카 안마방↖파주마사지 간판 구분◥파주안양역 안마방⊥파주안마방 태국⇅파주안마방 보지↿[파주조건 만남]파주송강동 마사지⇠파주구미 안마방╆파주송파 마사지┌파주마사지 기계♥파주하노이 vip 마사지]파주흉쇄유돌근 마사지▶[파주엘림 마사지]파주출장안마야한곳┨파주마사지 테라피╭파주티켓 썰◦파주괌 마사지 팔러▶예약평택신데렐라 안마방예약파주안마방 분수⚘파주강남 안마방 위치ナ{파주창원 안마방 후기}파주마사지 하다가↸파주타이 마사지 후기➽파주광대 축소 마사지▬파주마사지 품번┍파주출장샵파주출장샵대구출장샵파주금정역 안마방파주타이 마사지 토렌트파주논현 마사지파주경포대 안마방파주출장샵파주서울샵↧파주출장안마☽〖파주출장오피〗파주태국마사지 불법➶파주이영학 안마방↲파주안마방 20대⇊파주유흥인 토렌트⇪과천라페스타 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics